Executive functions begin to develop EARLY!
At ages 3-5...
- inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility, goal directed behaviors and planning
At ages 4-5...
Day-to-day EF skills emerge with metacognition, greater flexibility, and inhibitory self-control
Preschool age kids reliably show: inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory, and plan/organize
At ages 6 and up,
- task initiation, organization of materials, self-monitoring
What might impede development of executive functions?
Unfortunately, we also know that poor executive functioning is a common correlate of many mental health problems. However, everyone can be impacted, some more than others. Below are a list of disorders or problems that are associated with weak or impaired executive functioning.
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
- Conduct Disorder
- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
- Learning Disorders
- Traumatic Brain Injury