Cancer-related masculine threat, emotional approach coping, and physical functioning following treatment for prostate cancer.
|Title||Cancer-related masculine threat, emotional approach coping, and physical functioning following treatment for prostate cancer.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Hoyt MA, Stanton AL, Irwin MR, Thomas KMS|
|Date Published||2013 Jan|
|Keywords||Adaptation, Psychological, Aged, Emotions, Gender Identity, Humans, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Masculinity, Middle Aged, Neoplasms, Prostatectomy, Prostatic Neoplasms, Self Efficacy|
OBJECTIVE: Aspects of masculinity and gender role, particularly those that are traditional and restrictive, are related to poorer physical and psychological outcomes in men with cancer. This longitudinal study uses a cancer-specific assessment to determine whether cancer-related masculine threat (CMT) predicts prostate-related (i.e., urinary, bowel, sexual) functioning over time, and whether cancer-related emotional approach coping (EAC) processes explain these relationships. Whether coping self-efficacy and emotional suppression explain effects of CMT on EAC also is tested.
METHODS: Sixty-six men (M age = 65.76; SD = 9.04) who underwent radical prostatectomy and/or radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer within two years were assessed on physical and psychological variables at study entry (T1), and two (T2) and four (T3) months later.
RESULTS: Analyses controlling for baseline functioning and age revealed that CMT predicted declines in (T1 to T3) urinary (B = -.21, p < .05), bowel (B = -.24, p < .05), and sexual (B = -.17, p < .05) function. CMT also predicted decreased emotional processing (T1 to T2), but not emotional expression. Decreased emotional processing predicted declining prostate-related functioning and helps explain the effect of CMT on bowel and sexual (but not urinary) functioning. Low coping self-efficacy (p < .05), but not emotional suppression, was a mechanism by which CMT predicted emotional processing.
CONCLUSIONS: The extent to which men believe that cancer is inconsistent with their masculinity exacerbates declines in prostate-related functioning following cancer treatment. CMT likely shapes coping responses and negatively affects the efficacy of emotion-directed coping. Emotion-regulating coping processes, particularly the ability to process cancer-related emotions, appears to be one pathway through which gender role affects recovery from prostate cancer.
|Alternate Journal||Health Psychol|
|Grant List||MH15750 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States|