Behavioral Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
|Title||Behavioral Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2011|
|Authors||O'Connor, M, Paley B|
|Journal||Alcohol Research & Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism|
|Keywords||Behavior, children, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)|
Exposure to alcohol in utero is considered to be a leading cause of developmental disabilities of known causation. The most severe consequence of such exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), is characterized by a distinct constellation of facial anomalies, growth retardation, and central nervous system dysfunction. Both animal and human studies, however, suggest that there may be considerable variability in the manifestations of in utero alcohol exposure across individuals, and, consequently, the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) has come into usage to reflect the entire continuum of effects associated with such exposure. In addition to FAS, this term encompasses the conditions of partial FAS, alcoholrelated neurodevelopmental disorder, and alcoholrelated birth defects. Despite extensive evidence of significant cognitive, behavioral, and social deficits in people with FASD, research on behavioral interventions for FASD has lagged behind. However, in recent years there has been a marked increase in efforts to design and test interventions for this population. This article will review current empirically tested interventions, methodological challenges, and suggestions for future directions in research on the treatment of FASD.