A double hit implicates DIAPH3 as an autism risk gene.

TitleA double hit implicates DIAPH3 as an autism risk gene.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsVorstman, JAS, van Daalen E, Jalali GR, Schmidt ERE, Pasterkamp RJ, de Jonge M, Hennekam EAM, Janson E, Staal WG, van der Zwaag B, Burbach JPH, Kahn RS, Emanuel BS, van Engeland H, Ophoff RA
JournalMolecular psychiatry
Volume16
Issue4
Pagination442-51
Date Published2011 Apr
ISSN1476-5578
KeywordsAdaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing, Adolescent, Animals, Animals, Newborn, Autistic Disorder, Brain, Cell Line, Transformed, Cognition Disorders, Family Health, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genome-Wide Association Study, Genotype, Humans, Male, Mice, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Transfection
Abstract

Recent studies have shown that more than 10% of autism cases are caused by de novo structural genomic rearrangements. Given that some heritable copy number variants (CNVs) have been observed in patients as well as in healthy controls, to date little attention has been paid to the potential function of these non-de novo CNVs in causing autism. A normally intelligent patient with autism, with non-affected parents, was identified with a maternally inherited 10 Mb deletion at 13q21.2. Sequencing of the genes within the deletion identified a paternally inherited nonsynonymous amino-acid substitution at position 614 of diaphanous homolog 3 (DIAPH3) (proline to threonine; Pro614Thr). This variant, present in a highly conserved domain, was not found in 328 healthy subjects. Experiments showed a transient expression of Diaph3 in the developing murine cerebral cortex, indicating it has a function in brain development. Transfection of Pro614Thr in murine fibroblasts showed a significant reduction in the number of induced filopodia in comparison to the wild-type gene. DIAPH3 is involved in cell migration, axon guidance and neuritogenesis, and is suggested to function downstream of SHANK3. Our findings strongly suggest DIAPH3 as a novel autism susceptibility gene. Moreover, this report of a 'double-hit' compound heterozygote for a large, maternally inherited, genomic deletion and a paternally inherited rare missense mutation shows that not only de novo genomic variants in patients should be taken seriously in further study but that inherited CNVs may also provide valuable information.

DOI10.1038/ng.2250
Alternate JournalMol. Psychiatry