The ageing phenome: caloric restriction and hormones promote neural cell survival, growth, and de-differentiation.

TitleThe ageing phenome: caloric restriction and hormones promote neural cell survival, growth, and de-differentiation.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsTimiras, PS, Yaghmaie F, Saeed O, Thung E, Chinn G
JournalMechanisms of ageing and development
Volume126
Issue1
Pagination3-9
Date Published2005 Jan
ISSN0047-6374
KeywordsAging, Animals, Caloric Restriction, Cell Differentiation, Cell Line, Tumor, Epidermal Growth Factor, Estrogens, Female, hypothalamus, Mice, Neuroglia, Rats, Reproduction
Abstract

The phenome represents the observable properties of an organism that have developed under the continued influences of both genome and environmental factors. Phenotypic properties are expressed through the functions of cells, organs and body systems that operate optimally, close to equilibrium. In complex organisms, maintenance of the equilibrium is achieved by the interplay of several regulatory mechanisms. In the elderly, dynamic instability may lead to progressive loss of normal function, failure of adaptation and increased pathology. Extensive research (reported elsewhere in this journal) has demonstrated that genetic manipulations of endocrine signaling in flies, worms and mice increase longevity. Another effective strategy for prolonging the lifespan is caloric restriction: in data presented here, the persistence of estrogen-sensitive cells in the hypothalamus of caloric restricted 22-month-old female mice, may explain the persistence of reproductive function at an age, when reproductive function has long ceased in ad libitum fed controls. Still another strategy utilizes the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to promote in vitro proliferation of neuroglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Their subsequent de-differentiation generates immature precursor cells potentially capable of differentiating into neuroblasts and neurons. These and other examples suggest that, in terms of functional outcomes, "the genome proposes but the phenome disposes".

DOI10.1038/npp.2012.42
Alternate JournalMech. Ageing Dev.