The ageing phenome: caloric restriction and hormones promote neural cell survival, growth, and de-differentiation.
|Title||The ageing phenome: caloric restriction and hormones promote neural cell survival, growth, and de-differentiation.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2005|
|Authors||Timiras, PS, Yaghmaie F, Saeed O, Thung E, Chinn G|
|Journal||Mechanisms of ageing and development|
|Date Published||2005 Jan|
|Keywords||Aging, Animals, Caloric Restriction, Cell Differentiation, Cell Line, Tumor, Epidermal Growth Factor, Estrogens, Female, hypothalamus, Mice, Neuroglia, Rats, Reproduction|
The phenome represents the observable properties of an organism that have developed under the continued influences of both genome and environmental factors. Phenotypic properties are expressed through the functions of cells, organs and body systems that operate optimally, close to equilibrium. In complex organisms, maintenance of the equilibrium is achieved by the interplay of several regulatory mechanisms. In the elderly, dynamic instability may lead to progressive loss of normal function, failure of adaptation and increased pathology. Extensive research (reported elsewhere in this journal) has demonstrated that genetic manipulations of endocrine signaling in flies, worms and mice increase longevity. Another effective strategy for prolonging the lifespan is caloric restriction: in data presented here, the persistence of estrogen-sensitive cells in the hypothalamus of caloric restricted 22-month-old female mice, may explain the persistence of reproductive function at an age, when reproductive function has long ceased in ad libitum fed controls. Still another strategy utilizes the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to promote in vitro proliferation of neuroglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Their subsequent de-differentiation generates immature precursor cells potentially capable of differentiating into neuroblasts and neurons. These and other examples suggest that, in terms of functional outcomes, "the genome proposes but the phenome disposes".
|Alternate Journal||Mech. Ageing Dev.|