The pharmacogenomic era: promise for personalizing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder therapy.

TitleThe pharmacogenomic era: promise for personalizing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder therapy.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsStein, MA, McGough JJ
JournalChild and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America
Volume17
Issue2
Pagination475-90, xi-xii
Date Published2008 Apr
ISSN1056-4993
KeywordsAdolescent, Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, Biotransformation, Central Nervous System Stimulants, Child, Child, Preschool, Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6, Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Forecasting, Genetic Markers, Humans, Pharmacogenetics, Receptors, Neurotransmitter, Treatment Outcome
Abstract

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment is often determined empirically through trial and error until an adequate response is obtained or side effects occur. ADHD is highly heritable and individuals experience wide individual variability in response to ADHD medications, suggesting that the mechanism of action of stimulant medications may provide clues for genetic predictors of response. The promise of ADHD pharmacogenetics is far-reaching and includes the potential to develop individualized medication regimens that improve symptom response, decrease risk for side effects, improve long-term tolerability, and thus contribute to long-term treatment compliance and improved effectiveness. Early ADHD pharmacogenetic studies have focused predominantly on catecholamine pathway genes and response to methylphenidate. Future efforts will also examine a wider range of stimulant and nonstimulant medications on a range of outcome measures and durations. Based on these studies, the potential for personalizing ADHD treatment in clinical practice will be determined.

DOI10.1016/j.comppsych.2011.05.003
Alternate JournalChild Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am