Cholinergic mechanisms in canine narcolepsy--II. Acetylcholine release in the pontine reticular formation is enhanced during cataplexy.
|Title||Cholinergic mechanisms in canine narcolepsy--II. Acetylcholine release in the pontine reticular formation is enhanced during cataplexy.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1994|
|Authors||Reid, MS, Siegel JM, Dement WC, Mignot E|
|Date Published||1994 Apr|
|Keywords||acetylcholine, Animals, cataplexy, Choline, Dog Diseases, Dogs, Female, Male, microdialysis, narcolepsy, Physostigmine, Reference Values, Reticular Formation, Tetrodotoxin|
Cataplexy in the narcoleptic canine has been shown to increase after local administration of carbachol into the pontine reticular formation. Rapid eye movement sleep has also been shown to increase after local administration of carbachol in the pontine reticular formation, and furthermore, acetylcholine release in the pontine tegmentum was found to increase during rapid eye movement sleep in rats. Therefore, in the present study we have investigated acetylcholine release in the pontine reticular formation during cataplexy in narcoleptic canines. Extracellular acetylcholine levels were measured in the pontine reticular formation of freely moving narcoleptic and control Doberman pinschers using in vivo microdialysis probes. Cataplexy was induced by the Food-Elicited Cataplexy Test and monitored using recordings of electroencephalogram, electrooculogram and electromyogram. Basal levels of acetylcholine in the microdialysis perfusates were approximately 0.5 pmol/10 min in both control and narcoleptic canines. Local perfusion with tetrodotoxin (10(-5) M) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid without Ca2+ produced a decrease, while intravenous injections of physostigmine (0.05 mg/kg) produced an increase in acetylcholine levels, indicating that the levels of acetylcholine levels measured are derived from neuronal release. During cataplexy induced by the Food-Elicited Cataplexy Test, acetylcholine levels increased by approximately 50% after four consecutive tests in narcoleptic canines, but did not change after four consecutive tests in control canines. Motor activity and feeding behavior, similar to that occurring during a Food-Elicited Cataplexy Test, had no effect on acetylcholine levels in the narcoleptic canines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)