Current trends in intraoperative optical imaging for functional brain mapping and delineation of lesions of language cortex.
|Title||Current trends in intraoperative optical imaging for functional brain mapping and delineation of lesions of language cortex.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2009|
|Authors||Prakash, N, Uhlemann F, Sheth SA, Bookheimer S, Martin N, Toga AW|
|Volume||47 Suppl 2|
|Date Published||2009 Aug|
|Keywords||Brain Mapping, cerebral cortex, Cerebrovascular Circulation, Humans, Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations, Intraoperative Period, Language, Neurosurgical Procedures, Optics and Photonics|
Resection of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM), epileptic focus, or glioma, ideally has a prerequisite of microscopic delineation of the lesion borders in relation to the normal gray and white matter that mediate critical functions. Currently, Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are used for preoperative mapping of critical function, whereas electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) is used for intraoperative mapping. For lesion delineation, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) are used preoperatively, whereas microscopy and histological sectioning are used intraoperatively. However, for lesions near eloquent cortex, these imaging techniques may lack sufficient resolution to define the relationship between the lesion and language function, and thus not accurately determine which patients will benefit from neurosurgical resection of the lesion without iatrogenic aphasia. Optical techniques such as intraoperative optical imaging of intrinsic signals (iOIS) show great promise for the precise functional mapping of cortices, as well as delineation of the borders of AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas. Here we first review the physiology of neuroimaging, and then progress towards the validation and justification of using intraoperative optical techniques, especially in relation to neurosurgical planning of resection AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas near or in eloquent cortex. We conclude with a short description of potential novel intraoperative optical techniques.