Activation of pontine and medullary motor inhibitory regions reduces discharge in neurons located in the locus coeruleus and the anatomical equivalent of the midbrain locomotor region.

TitleActivation of pontine and medullary motor inhibitory regions reduces discharge in neurons located in the locus coeruleus and the anatomical equivalent of the midbrain locomotor region.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2000
AuthorsMileykovskiy, BY, Kiyashchenko LI, Kodama T, Lai YY, Siegel JM
JournalThe Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Volume20
Issue22
Pagination8551-8
Date Published2000 Nov 15
ISSN1529-2401
KeywordsAnimals, Decerebrate State, Electric Stimulation, gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, glycine, Hindlimb, Locus Coeruleus, Male, Medulla Oblongata, Mesencephalon, microdialysis, Muscle Tonus, Neural Inhibition, Neurons, pons, Rats, Rats, Wistar
Abstract

Activation of the pontine inhibitory area (PIA) including the middle portion of the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO), or the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) suppresses muscle tone in decerebrate animals. The locus coeruleus (LC) and midbrain locomotor region (MLR) have been implicated in the facilitation of muscle tone. In the current study we investigated whether PIA and Gi stimulation causes changes in activity in these brainstem motor facilitatory systems. PIA stimulation evoked bilateral muscle tone suppression and inhibited 26 of 28 LC units and 33 of 36 tonically active units located in the anatomical equivalent of the MLR (caudal half of the cuneiform nucleus and the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus). Gi stimulation evoked bilateral suppression of hindlimb muscle tone and inhibited 20 of 35 LC units and 24 of 24 neurons located in the MLR as well as facilitated 11 of 35 LC units. GABA and glycine release in the vicinity of LC was increased by 20-40% during ipsilateral PnO stimulation inducing hindlimb muscle tone suppression on the same side of the body. We conclude that activation of pontine and medullary inhibitory regions produces a coordinated reduction in the activity of the LC units and neurons located in the MLR related to muscle tone facilitation. The linkage between activation of brainstem motor inhibitory systems and inactivation of brainstem facilitatory systems may underlie the reduction in muscle tone in sleep as well as the modulation of muscle tone in the isolated brainstem.

DOI10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01023.x
Alternate JournalJ. Neurosci.