A hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis and epileptogenesis of pediatric cortical dysplasia and hemimegalencephaly based on MRI cerebral volumes and NeuN cortical cell densities.
|Title||A hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis and epileptogenesis of pediatric cortical dysplasia and hemimegalencephaly based on MRI cerebral volumes and NeuN cortical cell densities.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2007|
|Authors||Mathern, GW, Andres M, Salamon N, Chandra SP, Andre VM, Cepeda C, Levine MS, Leite JP, Neder L, Vinters HV|
|Volume||48 Suppl 5|
|Keywords||Adult, Apoptosis, Brain, Cell Count, cerebral cortex, Child, Child, Preschool, Coloring Agents, Epilepsy, Humans, Infant, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Models, Neurological, Neocortex, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Spasms, Infantile, Tomography, X-Ray Computed|
This study compared MRI cerebral volumes and Neuronal-Nuclei (NeuN) cell densities in pediatric epilepsy surgery patients with cortical dysplasia (CD; n = 25) and hemimegalencephaly (HME; n = 14). Our purpose was to deduce possible mechanisms of pathogenesis and epileptogenesis based on an understanding of normal developmental corticoneurogenesis. We used MRI to measured cerebral hemisphere volumes, and NeuN staining to determine grey and white matter cell densities and cell sizes in the molecular layer, grey, and white matter. CD and HME surgical cases were compared with autopsy or non-CD cases (n = 20). Total MRI brain volumes were similar between non-CD, CD, and HME cases. However, in HME patients, the affected cerebral hemisphere was larger and the nonaffected side smaller than non-CD cases. Compared with autopsy cases, NeuN cell densities and cell sizes in CD and HME patients were increased in the molecular layer, upper grey matter, and white matter. In CD and HME cases, total cerebral hemisphere volumes were normal in size and there were more cortical neurons in upper layers than expected. The increase in cortical neuronal densities is consistent with the hypothesis that CD and HME pathogenesis involves increased neurogenesis in the late (not early) phases of cortical formation. In addition, more neurons in the molecular layer and white matter supports the concept that CD and HME pathogenesis also involves incomplete programmed cell death in the remnant cells occupying the preplate and subplate regions. Based on our anatomical and previous electrophysiological findings, we propose that in CD and HME seizure generation is the consequence of incomplete cerebral development with abnormal interactions between immature and mature cells and cellular networks.