Genome arrays for the detection of copy number variations in idiopathic mental retardation, idiopathic generalized epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders: lessons for diagnostic workflow and research.

TitleGenome arrays for the detection of copy number variations in idiopathic mental retardation, idiopathic generalized epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders: lessons for diagnostic workflow and research.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsHochstenbach, R, Buizer-Voskamp JE, Vorstman JAS, Ophoff RA
JournalCytogenetic and genome research
Volume135
Issue3-4
Pagination174-202
Date Published2011
ISSN1424-859X
KeywordsAnimals, Congenital Abnormalities, DNA Copy Number Variations, Epilepsy, Gene Dosage, Genetic Pleiotropy, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genome, Human, Genome-Wide Association Study, Humans, Mental Disorders, Mice, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis, Penetrance
Abstract

We review the contributions and limitations of genome-wide array-based identification of copy number variants (CNVs) in the clinical diagnostic evaluation of patients with mental retardation (MR) and other brain-related disorders. In unselected MR referrals a causative genomic gain or loss is detected in 14-18% of cases. Usually, such CNVs arise de novo, are not found in healthy subjects, and have a major impact on the phenotype by altering the dosage of multiple genes. This high diagnostic yield justifies array-based segmental aneuploidy screening as the initial genetic test in these patients. This also pertains to patients with autism (expected yield about 5-10% in nonsyndromic and 10-20% in syndromic patients) and schizophrenia (at least 5% yield). CNV studies in idiopathic generalized epilepsy, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder and Tourette syndrome indicate that patients have, on average, a larger CNV burden as compared to controls. Collectively, the CNV studies suggest that a wide spectrum of disease-susceptibility variants exists, most of which are rare (<0.1%) and of variable and usually small effect. Notwithstanding, a rare CNV can have a major impact on the phenotype. Exome sequencing in MR and autism patients revealed de novo mutations in protein coding genes in 60 and 20% of cases, respectively. Therefore, it is likely that arrays will be supplanted by next-generation sequencing methods as the initial and perhaps ultimate diagnostic tool in patients with brain-related disorders, revealing both CNVs and mutations in a single test.

DOI10.1038/ng.2250
Alternate JournalCytogenet. Genome Res.