Cognitive reserve as a protective factor in older HIV-positive patients at risk for cognitive decline.

TitleCognitive reserve as a protective factor in older HIV-positive patients at risk for cognitive decline.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsFoley, JM, Ettenhofer ML, Kim MS, Behdin N, Castellon SA, Hinkin CH
JournalApplied neuropsychology
Date Published2012 Jan
KeywordsAdult, Age Factors, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Aging, Analysis of Variance, Cognition Disorders, Cognitive Reserve, Female, HIV Infections, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Neuropsychological Tests

The present study examined the impact of cognitive reserve in maintaining intact neuropsychological (NP) function among older HIV-positive individuals, a uniquely at-risk subgroup. Participants included 129 individuals classified by HIV serostatus, age group, and NP impairment. A three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a series of within-group ANOVA and multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the pattern of cognitive reserve (vs. other protective) influence among groups with varying risks of NP impairment. Results indicated a significant age × HIV status interaction, with older HIV-positive individuals demonstrating higher cognitive reserve than subgroups with less risk for NP compromise (younger age and/or HIV-negative). Results demonstrated higher cognitive reserve specific to NP-intact older HIV-positive individuals. Within this group, the interaction of younger age and higher cognitive reserve independently contributed to cognitive status when controlling for psychiatric, immunological, and psychosocial protective mechanisms, suggesting the importance of cognitive reserve beyond other protective mechanisms in maintaining optimal NP functioning in those individuals most at risk. Alongside younger age, factors contributing to cognitive reserve (i.e., education and estimated premorbid intelligence) may provide substantial benefit for older HIV-positive adults who are at high risk for NP compromise.

Alternate JournalAppl Neuropsychol