|Title||Reduced number of hypocretin neurons in human narcolepsy|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2000|
|Authors||Thannickal, TC , Moore RY , Nienhuis R , Ramanathan L , Gulyani S , Aldrich M , Cornford M , Siegel JM |
Murine and canine narcolepsy can be caused by muta- tions of the hypocretin (Hcrt) (orexin) precursor or Hcrt receptor genes. In contrast to these animal models, most human narcolepsy is not familial, is discordant in identical twins, and has not been linked to mutations of the Hcrt system. Thus, the cause of human narco- lepsy remains unknown. Here we show that human narcoleptics have an 85%–95% reduction in the num- ber of Hcrt neurons. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, which are intermixed with Hcrt cells in the normal brain, are not reduced in number, indicating that cell loss is relatively specific for Hcrt neurons. The presence of gliosis in the hypocretin cell region is consistent with a degenerative process being the cause of the Hcrt cell loss in narcolepsy.